Improvement in the implementation of work-based vocational education and training (dual VET) policies, through training, experience and peer exchange

This publication, as a result of the European iidVET project, summarises the main aspects of the initiative and takes a comparative look at the work-based vocational education and training (dual VET) system from three perspectives: quality, attractiveness and governance.

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The European Union considers it essential to adapt training systems to the needs of a changing labour market, which increasingly requires new professional skills. In some European countries such as Austria or Germany, vocational training systems are closely linked to companies and their needs. However, other countries, such as Spain or Portugal, still need to strengthen this relationship. On the other hand, the 2020 Strategy and its objective of developing an intelligent, sustainable and inclusive economy also directs us towards the search for a greater and better qualifications for working people.

The iidVET project was born with the objective of setting a space for mutual training, development and innovation in the implementation of dual VET in five countries: Austria, Germany, Spain, Italy and Portugal. Specifically, this initiative was expected to:

  • Create networks to work transnationally.
  • Address the barriers to dual VET.
  • Develop guides and operational recommendations.
  • Improve dual VET programmes.
  • Develop a new model of international mobility in dual VET.
  • Improve the quality of dual VET.

between 2018 and 2019, this shared space has materialized in a practical way in the performance of different mutual training activities in the five countries and with nine partner entities. Throughout the project, the seven criteria have been used as a guide, grouped into three axes, established by the European Framework for Quality and Effective Learning:

  • The quality of the dual VET system.
  • The attractiveness of the dual VET system.
  • Your governance of the dual VET system.

In addition, work has been done transversally on the issue of international mobility and on practical and constructive tools.

Key Results and Recommendations

Thanks to iidVET, several criteria have been identified to guarantee the quality, attractiveness of the system, governance and mobility in dual vocational training. This way, certain conditions are considered necessary:

  • in relation to learning and work: for example, a written agreement, setting learning outcomes or pedagogical support for learners.
  • in relation to the criteria on the conditions of use: such as establishing a regulatory framework, there must be support from companies or professional orientation and awareness.

To learn more about the results of the project and the experiences of each of the participating countries, see the full report in English here.


The iidVET project, – improving implementing dual VET – has counted on the technical assistance of Fresno, has been funded by the European Union, under the Erasmus + programme, and has been led by the Ministry of Education of the Spanish Region of Castilla y León.